In this era, when major oil/gas field are depleting, search is on by energy-starving countries like India for unconventional and renewable energy resources towards the energy security. The institute plays a proactive role in assisting national exploration programs for identifying the potential hydrocarbons and economic mineral zones in the country for energy security. The amount of methane prognosticated in the form of gas-hydrates along the Indian margin is more than 1500 times of country's present natural gas reserves, and only 10% recovery can meet India's overwhelming energy requirement for about 100 years. Structural configurations of sedimentary basins are mapped by seismic methods for hydrocarbon exploration. Delineation and assessment for hydrocarbons is being carried out at CSIR-NGRI, using integrated seismics, gravity and magnetic and magnetotellurics and deep resistivity investigations to evaluate the resource potential of hydrocarbons in India. A number of novel techniques coupled with relevant softwares are indigenously developed to analyze gravity anomalies of the subsurface structures and basement configuration of sedimentary basins vital for hydrocarbon exploration. State-of-the-art Gas Hydrate research centre is established at CSIR-NGRI with world-class facilities for inversion, processing, modeling and interpretation of seismic data along with laboratory facilities to understand the formation and dissociation kinetics and providing inputs to develop suitable production technology. A geochemical laboratory with facilities for soil gas analysis relevant to hydrocarbon prospecting in sedimentary basins is established.